- Appears bright, highly intelligent, and
articulate but unable to read, write, or spell at grade level.
- Labeled lazy, dumb, careless, immature, "not trying hard
enough," or "behavior problem."
"behind enough" or "bad enough" to be helped in the
- High in IQ, yet may not
academically; tests well orally, but not
- Feels dumb; has poor
self-esteem; hides or covers up
ingenious compensatory strategies; easily frustrated and emotional about
reading or testing.
- Talented in art, drama, music, sports, mechanics,
story-telling, sales, business,
building, or engineering.
- Seems to "Zone
out" or daydream often; gets lost easily or loses
track of time.
- Difficulty sustaining
attention; seems "hyper" or "daydreamer."
hands-on experience, demonstrations,
experimentation, observation, and visual aids.
Vision, Reading, and Spelling
- Complains of dizziness, headaches or stomach aches while
- Confused by letters, numbers,
words, sequences, or verbal explanations.
- Reading or writing shows repetitions, additions,
transpositions, omissions, substitutions, and reversals in
letters, numbers and/or words.
feeling or seeing non-existent movement while
reading, writing, or copying.
- Seems to
with vision, yet eye exams don't
reveal a problem.
- Extremely keen sighted
and observant, or lacks
depth perception and
- Reads and rereads with
phonetically and inconsistently.
Hearing and Speech
- Has extended hearing; hears things not said or apparent to
others; easily distracted by sounds.
Difficulty putting thoughts into words; speaks in halting phrases;
leaves sentences incomplete; stutters
stress; mispronounces long words, or transposes phrases, words, and
syllables when speaking.
and Motor Skills
with writing or copying; pencil grip is unusual; handwriting varies or
uncoordinated, poor at ball or team sports; difficulties with fine
and/or gross motor skills and tasks;
- Can be ambidextrous, and
often confuses left/right, over/under.
Math and Time Management
difficulty telling time, managing time, learning sequenced information
or tasks, or being on time.
- Computing math
shows dependence on finger counting and other tricks; knows answers,
but can't do
it on paper.
- Can count, but has difficulty counting objects and dealing with
- Can do arithmetic,
but fails word problems; cannot grasp algebra or higher math.
Memory and Cognition
- Excellent long-term memory for experiences, locations, and
- Poor memory for sequences, facts
and information that has not been experienced.
- Thinks primarily with images and feeling, not sounds
or words (little internal dialogue).
Behavior, Health, Development and Personality
- Extremely disorderly or
- Can be class clown,
trouble-maker, or too quiet.
unusually early or late developmental stages (talking,
crawling, walking, tying shoes).
- Prone to
infections; sensitive to foods, additives, and
- Can be an extra deep
or light sleeper;
bedwetting beyond appropriate
- Unusually high or low tolerance for
- Strong sense of justice;
emotionally sensitive; strives for perfection.
- Mistakes and symptoms increase dramatically with
confusion, time pressure, emotional stress, or poor health.